Professor Dr. Mustafa Sozbilir
IMPACT OF CONTEXT-BASED CHEMISTRY TEACHING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND AFFECTIVE DOMAINS
Mustafa SoZBILIR, Prof. Dr.Ataturk University, Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty
Department of Mathematics and Science Education 25240- Erzurum/TURKEY
Science subjects, especially chemistry has appeared to failing to stimulate children’s interest and motivation. Overcoming this problem has been subject to research literature in science education for the forty years. Context-based teaching is seen one of the possible solutions. Teaching science through context-based approach in high school has become widely used over the past decades (Bennett, Lubben & Hogarth, 2007).
As a context-based curriculum development approach several projects were implemented in mainstream chemistry courses such as ChemCom and CiC in USA, Salters Chemistry in UK, ChiK in Germany, ChiP in Dutch and Industrial Chemistry in Israel (Pilot & Bulte, 2006). The aim of these projects is to make chemistry more attractive and interesting for students, in particular, by connecting chemical knowledge with real world contexts which are relevant to the students (Bennett, 2003). Successfully implementation of these projects led context-based approach to be used as a teaching and learning model.
Context-based approach studies in chemistry education commonly focus on students’ learning outcomes, motivation and attitudes. Context-based approach motivates students in their science lessons and enhances more positive attitudes towards science more generally but do not adversely affect students’ understanding of scientific ideas (Bennett, Hogarth, & Lubben, 2005).
In this presentation, the history of the context-based approach as a curriculum development and instructional design will be described. Following the introduction of different models of context-based chemistry as an instructional designs and their application, the impacts on students’ academic achievement as well as affective gains will be presented based on evidences collected through my research group studies. These models will include “Context-Based ARCS Model” (Kutu & Sözbilir, 2011) and “Context-Problem Based Learning (C-PBL)” (Baran & Sozbilir, in press). All studies are done at secondary level and implement with Turkish chemistry secondary curriculum.
Keywords: Context-based teaching, chemistry, academic achievement, affective domains
Dr. Takashi Oda
Training Teachers for Reducing Natural Disaster Risks:Lessons and Practice in Tohoku, Japan
Takashi Oda, PhDAssociate ProfessorDepartment of Mathematics and Science Education 25240- Erzurum/TURKEYCenter for Disaster Education & Future DesignMiyagi University of Education, Sendai, Japan
This presentation discusses recent developments in the education sector that addresses natural disaster risk reduction (DRR) while demonstrating on-going efforts made in preservice and in-service teacher training programs in Japan, following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The study suggests the important roles that schools can play in DRR education and community-based disaster preparedness during noncrisis phases and as emergency shelter during actual disasters.
During the tsunami disaster, there were many school buildings that survived from the tsunami as only strong and tall buildings in the community, which ended up saving many lives of the students and local evacuees. At the same time, the local teachers played important roles in managing evacuation shelters at these public school. Based on lessons from the 2011 disaster, Japanese policymakers and educators began to focus on the multiple roles that schools can play – from both structural and leadership standpoints and to call for preservice and in-service DRR education to teach further on DRR and school safety management in general.
While covering the presenter’s personal experience from the 2011 disaster as well as institutional response by his home university, Miyagi University of Education as only national teacher-training university in the severely affected region, the talk presents the recent policy transitions observed surrounding DRR education at schools and teacher training, and it offers several examples of pilot practices conducted at teacher training programs in Tohoku.
Keywords: teacher-training, disaster risk reduction, preservice, in-service, Japan
Dr. Eugeniusz Switala
How to organise the process of teaching mathematics
Dr. Eugeniusz Switala, PolandAssociate ProfessorDaugavpils University, Latvia
Mathematics – the most practical, with most practical application of all the sciences. It allows to develop other branches of knowledge, such as physics, chemistry, biology, economics, etc. While clearly a branch of philosophy, for many students it is basically impossible to understand and master. As Leonard Adleman wrote: “Mathematics is less related to accounting than it is to philosophy.” Counting is only a secondary goal of teaching mathematics. The primary purpose is to shape thinking, teach problem-solving and cooperation in the group. Mathematics and teaching mathematics undoubtedly has a great impact on the individual characteristics of each student and their individual development. Mathematics, especially in the culture of Islam, was and is an inspiration for architects, decorators, in ceramics and for artists including artists of applied art. Arabic alphabet is based on the shape of the wheel, taking into account appropriate proportions, even poetry and music are formalized and based on mathematical proportions. Mathematics, in the culture of Islam has become a kind of link between multiple scientific disciplines, between culture, art and science. Similar relationships exist in each culture.
So what are the causes of this state of affairs? Below you will find an attempt to answer the most important questions in this regard.
We can see in the process of teaching carried out in Western countries its practical application in:
1) primary school
2) worse in lower secondary level
3) but, when presented in theory at the level of higher education - it is already a great problem for lawyers, economists, etc.
Why is it so? Why so many people perceive it as magical, unavailable and incomprehensible knowledge? Where are the reasons for this? How is it possible that for so many years we continue to make the same mistakes in the process of teaching - learning of mathematics? And for the average recipient ,A mathematician is a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat which isn't there.’ (words attributed to Charles r. Darwin, 1809-1898). Of course, he might not have meant Muezza, the favorite cat of Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). However, this reference indicates the mysticism of this subject and the exceptional importance of research carried out by mathematicians and in mathematics. If we encounter such difficulties, does it mean that we should refrain from teaching at this level and in this theoretical way?
Hugo Steinhaus, world famous Polish mathematician, once said:
... regardless of age and the population in question, the number of people who understand mathematics is always the same, i.e. negligible. But this does not mean that we should stop teaching, it means to throw a grain and wait until it falls on fertile ground which will grow a beautiful plant.
So what proceedings, methods we should adopt to grow as many of these 'beautiful plants' as possible? Not only the most beautiful plants are important in this process. It is also important that all pupils and students got as much benefit from the teaching and learning of mathematics as possible. What methods to adopt for mathematics to be better understood by the representatives of other areas of life and science, such as biology, economics, industry, construction, etc.
To this end, the following are necessary:
1. Very good curriculum
2. Very good students’ books
3. Superb teacher
4. Appropriate State policy in the field of teaching of mathematics
Curriculum – itshould be a guide for the teacher. It should not only give the scope of the content, but also indicate methods of work for the teacher. The programme should be focused on the student, his actions and not on the actions of the teacher. It should be strictly student-oriented and it should focus on their practical actions. The curriculum should be adapted to the relevant level of student’s biological development.
Students’ books - they should be clear, understandable, both for the student and the teacher. They should give the possibility of independent study. The book should be a guide for the teacher in terms of methods used for teaching and for the student, in terms of the content that will be presented and methods how to comprehend it. The students’ book should primarily develop the imagination of students. As Einstein said: ,Imagination is more important than knowledge.’ It is the imagination shaped in the teaching process, that is expected to be the basis for the individual development of the student.
Teacher - not only he seems to be, but actually is the most important 'element’ of the teaching-learning process. A teacher who is aware of the purposes of teaching and is involved in the process. A teacher who is perfectly prepared to conduct the learning process, that understands his role and responsibilities he has to each student. A teacher should work according to the following Einstein principle: ,Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler’, since then we will lose the true meaning of the concept or the process. A teacher who understands school in a holistic way as an open, dynamic system with multiple interactions, with external environment, as well as with many interactions within the system.
An appropriate State policy - it is an element that must 'bind ' and support the three previously identified factors. Without proper State policy in the field of education, no development, including the development of the society as a whole, is possible. The State must create the right conditions for education and professional development of teachers. Such a model of teacher education and their development and promotion adopted in Poland will also be presented by the author.
The author will discuss the solutions applied in Poland in the field of education and further training of teachers and will also present in detail the UN programme proposed by UNESCO in the field of reorienting teacher education towards sustainable development that points to the most important lines of action in this regard, which should be applied in each country.
Key words: mathematics, teaching mathematics, teacher,